They report surface plasmon (SP) lasing in metal/semiconductor nanostructures, where one-dimensional periodic silver slit gratings are placed on top of an InGaAsP layer. The SP nature of the lasing is confirmed from the emission wavelength governed by the grating period, polarization analysis, spatial coherence, and comparison with the linear transmission. The excellent performance of the device as an SP source is demonstrated by its tunable emission in the 400-nm-wide telecom wavelength band at room temperature. They show that the stimulated emission enhanced by the Purcell effect enables successful SP lasing at high energies above the gap energy of the gain. They also discuss the dependence of the lasing efficiency on temperature, grating dimension, and type of metal.
The paper entitled “Localized to Propagating Surface Plasmon Resonance Transition in Ni-Au Magneto-Plasmonic Gratings” is written by Morteza Alizadeh Oskuie under the direct supervision of Dr Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi and it is accepted in the journal of Superconductivity and novel magnetism. The abstract is as follows:
Magneto-plasmonic structures, which are the best candidates for different applications, have been the subject of intense research in recent years. In this paper, we proposed new magneto-plasmonic structures based on different uni-dimensional gratings to investigate the localized to propagative surface plasmon resonance transition. For this purpose, simulation of reflectance and also surface plasmon resonance coupling were used in three different fabricated samples compared with nickel thin film under different
azimuthaly excitations. The fabricated samples show an enhanced magneto-optical rotation due to the transition of two types of plasmon in the sample with intermediate dimensions. The prospects of magneto-plasmonic response dependency on the azimuthaly excitation are discussed.
Plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) can significantly modify the optical properties of nearby organic molecules and thus present an attractive opportunity for sensing applications. However, the utilization of PNPs in conventional absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy techniques is often ineffective due to strong absorption background and light scattering, particularly in the case of turbid solutions, cell suspensions, and biological tissues. Here they show that nonmagnetic organic molecules may exhibit magneto-optical response due to binding to a PNP. Specifically, they detect strong magnetic circular dichroism signal from supramolecular J-aggregates, a representative organic dye, upon binding to silver-coated gold nanorods. They explain this effect by strong coupling between the J-aggregate exciton and the nanoparticle plasmon, leading to the formation of a hybrid state in which the exciton effectively acquires magnetic properties from the plasmon. Their findings are fully corroborated by theoretical modeling and constitute a novel magnetic method for chemo- and biosensing, which (upon adequate PNP functionalization) is intrinsically insensitive to the organic background and thus offers a significant advantage over conventional spectroscopy techniques.
Strong coupling between plasmons and excitons in nanocavities can result in the
formation of hybrid plexcitonic states. Understanding the dispersion relation of plexcitons is important both for fundamental quantum science and for applications including optoelectronics and nonlinear optics devices. The conventional approach, based on statistics over different nanocavities suffers from large inhomogeneities from the samples, owing to the non-uniformity of nanocavities and the lack of control over the locations and orientations of the excitons. Here they report the first measurement of the dispersion relationship of plexcitons in an individual nanocavity. Using a single silver nanorod as a Fabry-Pérot nanocavity, they realize strong coupling of plasmon in single nanocavity with excitons in a single atomic layer of tungsten diselenide. The plexciton dispersion is measured by in-situ redshifting the plasmon energy via successive deposition of a dielectric layer. Room temperature formation of plexcitons with Rabi splittings as large as 49.5 meV is observed. Realization of strong plasmon-exciton coupling by
in-situ tuning of the plasmon provides a novel route for manipulation of excitons in
Artificial neural networks are computational network models inspired by signal processing in the brain. These models have dramatically improved performance for many machine-learning tasks, including speech and image recognition. However, today’s computing hardware is inefficient at implementing neural networks, in large part because much of it was designed for von Neumann computing schemes. Significant effort has been made towards developing electronic architectures tuned to implement artificial neural networks that exhibit improved computational speed and accuracy. Here, they propose a new architecture for a fully optical neural network that, in principle, could offer an enhancement in computational speed and power efficiency over state-of-the-art electronics for conventional inference tasks. They experimentally demonstrate the essential part of the concept using a programmable nanophotonic processor featuring a cascaded array of 56 programmable Mach–Zehnder interferometers in a silicon photonic integrated circuit and show its utility for vowel recognition.
A novel magnetized plasma modulator for THz range is proposed. The structure is based on 2-D photoniccrystal (PC) constructed by triangular lattice of Si rods in air with line defects and an InSb rod as apoint defect. Based on the magneto-optic effect, the resonant frequency can be tuned by the externalmagnetic field and the radius of point defect. The transfer and disappearance of the PC-based mode canbe realized by utilizing a waveguide and a plasma cavity. The simulation results show that PC-based modedisappearance modulator has the potential for THz wireless broadband communication system with agood performance of high contrast ratio (<33.61 dB), low insertion loss (<0.36 dB) and high modulationrate (∼4 GHz).
Related paper: Wen Zhou et al.,Vertically magnetic-controlled THz modulator based on 2-D magnetized plasma photonic crystal,Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications,Volume 23, February 2017, Pages 28–35,(2017).
This work reports the plasmonically enhanced refractive index sensor consisting of silicon nanowire array (Si-NWA) coated by a conformal gold (Au) nanoshell. Compared to the pure Si or Au NWA system, the Si-Au core-shell setup leads to substantially enhanced optical in-coupling to excite strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for highly sensitive sensors. Results indicate that the SPR wavelength can be subtly tuned by manipulating the nanowire radius, and it shows a strong shift with very small variation of the refractive index of the analyte. Furthermore, they configure the system into the Schottky junction, which can separate the photogenerated hot electrons so that the electrical outputs under various incident wavelengths can be measured. The capabilities of optical and electrical measurements ensure a high flexibility of the sensing system. Through their optoelectronic evaluation, the optimally designed system shows a sensitivity up to 1008 nm per refractive index unit and a full width at half-maximum of 9.89 nm; moreover, the high sensing performance can be sustained in a relatively large range of the incident angle.
Related paper: Qin, L et al.,Silicon-gold core-shell nanowire array for an optically and electrically characterized refractive index sensor based on plasmonic resonance and Schottky junction,Optics Letters,Vol. 42, Issue 7, pp. 1225-1228,(2017).
They propose a cavity-enhanced resonator based on graphene surface plasmonics for infrared sensing. In such a resonator, a continuous and non-patterned monolayer graphene serves as the sensing medium by exciting surface plasmons on its surface, which can preserve the excellent electronic property of graphene and avoid the interaction between biomolecules and dielectric substrate. To improve its sensing performance, an optical cavity is employed to enhance the coupling of the incident light with the resonator. Simulation results demonstrate that the reflection spectra of the resonator can be modified to be narrower and deeper to improve the figure of merit (FOM) of the device significantly by adjusting the structure parameters of the cavity and the Fermi energy level. The FOM can achieve a high value of up to 20.15 RIU−1, which is about twice larger than that of the traditional structure without a cavity. Furthermore, the resonator can work in a wide angle range of the incident light. Such a plasmonic resonator with excellent features may provide a strategy to engineer graphene-based SPR sensor with high detection accuracy.
This article reviews recent progress leading to the realization of planar optical components made of a single layer of phase shifting nanostructures. After introducing the principles of planar optics and discussing earlier works on subwavelength diffractive optics,they introduce a classification of metasurfaces based on their different phase mechanisms and profiles and a comparison between plasmonic and dielectric metasurfaces. They place particular emphasis on the recent developments on electric and magnetic field control of light with dielectric nanostructures and highlight the physical mechanisms and designs required for efficient all-dielectric metasurfaces. Practical devices of general interest such as metalenses, beam deflectors, holograms, and polarizing interfaces are discussed, including high-performance metalenses at visible wavelengths. Successful strategies to achieve achromatic response at selected wavelengths and near unity transmission/reflection efficiency are discussed. Dielectric metasurfaces and dispersion management at interfaces open up technology opportunities for applications including wavefront control, lightweight imaging systems, displays, electronic consumer products, and conformable and wearable optics.
A sensor design and sensing method based on plasmonic–photonic interactions that occur when a nanocavity array is embedded in a 3D tapered nanocup plasmonic substrate are reported. This device enables highly sensitive detection of refractive index changes based on changes to the transmission peak intensity without shift in the resonance wavelength. Unlike conventional plasmonic sensors, there is a consistent and selective change in the transmission intensity at the resonance peak wavelength with no spectral shift. In addition, there are wavelength ranges that show no intensity change, which can be used as reference regions. The fabrication and characterization of the plasmonic nanocavity sensor are described and also advanced biosensing is demonstrated. Simulations are carried out to better understand the plasmon–photonic coupling mechanism. This nanocavity plasmonic sensor design has a limit of detection of 1 ng mL−1 (5 × 10−12m) for the cancer biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is a significant improvement over current surface plasmon resonance systems, and a dynamic range that is clinically relevant for human CEA levels.