National Convention Centre, Canberra, Australia
The aim of the 2016 International Conference On Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICONN 2016) is to bring together Australian and International communities (students, scientists, engineers and stake holders from academia, government laboratories, industry and other organisations) working in the field of nanoscale science and technology to discuss new and exciting advances in the field. ICONN will cover nanostructure growth, synthesis, fabrication, characterization, device design, theory, modeling, testing, applications, commercialisation, and health and safety aspects of nanotechnology.
The conference will feature plenary talks followed by technical symposia (parallel sessions) consisting of invited talks, oral and poster presentations.
Spectral measurements in the infrared optical range provide unique fingerprints of materials, which are useful for material analysis, environmental sensing and health diagnostics1. Current infrared spectroscopy techniques require the use of optical equipment suited for operation in the infrared range, components of which face challenges of inferior performance and high cost. Here, Kalashnikov et al. develop a technique that allows spectral measurements in the infrared range using visible-spectral-range components. The technique is based on nonlinear interference of infrared and visible photons, produced via spontaneous parametric down conversion. The intensity interference pattern for a visible photon depends on the phase of an infrared photon travelling through a medium. This allows the absorption coefficient and refractive index of the medium in the infrared range to be determined from the measurements of visible photons. The technique can substitute and/or complement conventional infrared spectroscopy and refractometry techniques, as it uses well-developed components for the visible range
- Nature Photonics 10, 98–101 (2016) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2015.252
DURHAM, N.C., July 27, 2015 — Able to flip on and off 90 billion times a second, a new plasmonic light emitter could form the basis of optical computing.
“This is something that the scientific community has wanted to do for a long time,” said Duke University professor Maiken Mikkelsen, whose team developed the device. “We can now start to think about making fast-switching devices based on this research, so there’s a lot of excitement about this demonstration.”
The device consists of a 75-nm silver cube and a thin sheet of gold, with 6-nm quantum dots (QDs) sandwiched in between. Laser illumination generates plasmons on the cube’s surface, which creates an intense electromagnetic field that triggers the QDs, producing directional, efficient emission of photons that can be turned on and off at a rate of more than 90 GHz.
Transmission electron microscope view of a superfast fluorescence system. The silver cube is 75 nm wide. The quantum dots (red) are sandwiched between the silver cube and a thin gold foil. Courtesy of Maiken Mikkelsen/Duke University.
“There is great interest in replacing lasers with LEDs for short-distance optical communication, but these ideas have always been limited by the slow emission rate of fluorescent materials, lack of efficiency and inability to direct the photons,” said postdoctoral researcher Gleb Akselrod. “Now we have made an important step towards solving these problems.”
“The eventual goal is to integrate our technology into a device that can be excited either optically or electrically,” said Thang Hoang, also a postdoctoral researcher in Mikkelsen’s laboratory. “That’s something that I think everyone, including funding agencies, is pushing pretty hard for.”
The group is now working to use the plasmonic structure to create a single-photon source — a necessity for extremely secure quantum communications — by sandwiching a single QD in the gap between the silver nanocube and gold foil. They are also trying to precisely place and orient the QDs to create the fastest fluorescence rates possible.
Aside from its potential technological impacts, the research demonstrates that well-known materials need not be limited by their intrinsic properties, the researchers said.
“By tailoring the environment around a material, like we’ve done here with semiconductors, we can create new designer materials with almost any optical properties we desire,” Mikkelsen said. “And that’s an emerging area that’s fascinating to think about.”
Funding came from the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, an Oak Ridge Associated University’s Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Enhancement Award, the Lord Foundation of North Carolina and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.
The research was published in Nature Communications (doi: 10.1038/ncomms8788).
For more information, visit www.duke.edu.
CAMBRIDGE, Mass., July 7, 2015 — Surface plasmons can exhibit wakes likes any other wave, and those wakes can be controlled through nanoscale features on a metallic surface and through properties of the light shining on it.
The creation and control of surface plasmon wakes could lead to new types of plasmonic couplers and lenses that could create 2D holograms or focus light at the nanoscale, according to researchers at Harvard University.
“The ability to control light is a powerful one,” said professor Federico Capasso. “Our understanding of optics on the macroscale has led to holograms, Google Glass and LEDs, just to name a few technologies. Nano-optics is a major part of the future of nanotechnology, and this research furthers our ability to control and harness the power of light on the nanoscale.”
An artist’s rendering of a running wave of polarization that excites the surface plasmon wakes. Courtesy of Daniel Wintz, Patrice Genevet and Antonio Ambrosio.
Capasso’s team generated running waves of polarization that propagated faster than the phase velocity of the plasmons along a 1D metamaterial. This created wakes analogous to those responsible for Cherenkov radiation.
The metamaterial, a nanostructure of rotated slits etched into a gold film, changes the phase of the surface plasmons generated at each slit relative to each other, increasing the velocity of the running wave. The nanostructure also acts like a boat’s rudder, allowing the wakes to be steered by controlling the speed of the running wave.
The angle of incidence and photon spin angular momentum of the light shining onto the metamaterial determines the speed of the running wave of polarization and thus provides an additional measure of control. The team also discovered that using polarized light can even reverse the direction of the wake relative to the running wave — like a wake traveling in the opposite direction of a boat.
“Being able to control and manipulate light at scales much smaller than the wavelength of the light is very difficult,” said graduate student Daniel Wintz. “It’s important that we not only observed these wakes but found multiple ways to control and steer them.”
The observation itself was challenging, as “surface plasmons are not visible to the eye or cameras,” said Antonio Ambrosio, a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard and researcher at the Italian Research Council. “In order to view the wakes, we used an experimental technique that forces plasmons from the surface, collects them via fiber optics and records the image.”
This work could represent a new testbed for wake physics across a variety of disciplines, the researchers said.
“This research addresses a particularly elegant and innovative problem in physics which connects different physical phenomena, from water wakes to sonic booms, and Cherenkov radiation,” said Patrice Genevet, a former Harvard postdoctoral scholar currently affiliated with the Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology.
Funding came from the National Science Foundation and U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
The research was published in Nature Nanotechnology (doi: 10.1038/nnano.2015.137).
For more information, visit seas.harvard.edu.
Gold Medal of the Society goes to University of Pennsylvania professor Nader Engheta
06 March 2015
BELLINGHAM, Washington, USA — Winners of prestigious annual awardshave been announced by the Awards Committee of SPIE, the international society for optics and photonics. The awards recognize outstanding individual and team technical accomplishments and meritorious service to the Society.
Award winners for 2015 are:
Gold Medal of the Society: Nader Engheta, University of Pennsylvania, for his transformative and groundbreaking contributions to optical engineering of metamaterials and nanoscale plasmonics, metamaterial-based optical nano circuits, and biologically-inspired optical imaging. The Gold Medal is the highest honor bestowed by SPIE.
2015 Gold Medal
of the Society
Britton Chance Biomedical Optics Award: Lihong Wang, Washington University in St. Louis, for his pioneering technical contributions and visionary leadership in the development and application of photo-acoustic tomography, photoacoustic microscopy and photon transport modeling.
A.E. Conrady Award: Richard C. Juergens, Raytheon Missile Systems, recognizing him as a leading authority in optical system design, optical component fabrication and testing, and training and mentoring of optical engineers, and instrumental in developing optimization techniques and tolerancing methods for optical design.
Dennis Gabor Award: Kazuyoshi Itoh, Osaka University, for his eminent contribution to the development of incoherent holography and nonlinear optical microscopy through your pioneering work on coherence-based multispectral and 3D imaging, and nonlinear optical imaging and manipulations of biological and inorganic industrial materials.
George W. Goddard Award: Grady H. Tuell, Georgia Tech Research Institute, recognizing his foundational research and development in bathymetric lidar and data fusion; and his efforts to further advance airborne LIDAR remote sensing in other ways including real-time calculation of total propagated positioning error.
G.G. Stokes Award: Aristide Dogariu, CREOL, University of Central Florida, for his development of new theoretical concepts and innovative methods and techniques for understanding and measuring polarization properties of light-matter interaction.
Chandra S. Vikram Award in Optical Metrology: Guillermo H. Kaufmann, Instituto de Física Rosario (CONICET-UNR) for his contributions to speckle metrology and its applications in material science, experimental mechanics and nondestructive testing, and also for the development of novel fringe analysis methods.
Frits Zernike Award in Microlithography: Ralph R. Dammel, AZ Electronics Materials, for his significant contributions to the development of photoresist, anti-reflective coating, and directed self-assembly materials for semiconductor microlithography.
SPIE Early Career Achievement Award — Academic: Miriam Serena Vitiello, recognizing her outstanding results in research on semiconductor laser sources and electronic high frequency nanodetectors which have opened new frontiers in the Terahertz photonics and optoelectronics fields.
SPIE Early Career Achievement Award — Industry: Alan Lee, LongWave Photonics LLC, recognizing his pioneering research on stand-off distance real-time THz imaging. The locking-in differential imaging proposed in his work formed the basic working principle of several commercial THz imagers/cameras.
SPIE Educator Award: Virendra Mahajan, recognizing his sharing of knowledge in the area of optical imaging, aberrations, and wavefront analysis through his voluntary teaching of students and professionals and the writing of five excellent books.
SPIE Technology Achievement Award: Keith B. Doyle, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, for his outstanding contributions to integrated analysis of optical systems, incorporating in this analysis elements of optical, thermal, and structural engineering.
For future awards, members of the photonics community may nominate colleagues to recognize their outstanding achievements. Nominations may be made through October 1 of any given year and are considered active for three years from the submission date. Instructions and nomination forms are at www.spie.org/x1164.xml.
SPIE is the international society for optics and photonics, a not-for-profit organization founded in 1955 to advance light-based technologies. The Society serves nearly 256,000 constituents from approximately 155 countries, offering conferences, continuing education, books, journals, and a digital library in support of interdisciplinary information exchange, professional networking, and patent precedent. SPIE provided more than $3.4 million in support of education and outreach programs in 2014.
2015 MRS Fall Meeting & Exhibit
- November 29-December 4, 2015
- Boston, Massachusetts
- Meeting Chairs: T. John Balk, Ram Devanathan, George G. Malliaras, Larry A. Nagahara, Luisa Torsi
2015 MRS Fall Meeting Symposia
Note: The MRS/E—MRS Bilateral Energy Conference will be comprised of the energy-related symposia at the 2015 MRS Fall Meeting*.
Symposium A—Engaged Learning of Materials Science and Engineering in the 21st Century
Biomaterials and Soft Materials
Symposium B—Stretchable and Active Polymers and Composites for Energy and Medicine
Symposium C—Tough, Smart and Printable Hydrogel Materials
Symposium D—Biological and Bioinspired Materials in Photonics and Electronics—Biology, Chemistry and Physics
Symposium E—Engineering and Application of Bioinspired Materials
Symposium F—Biomaterials for Regenerative Engineering
Symposium G—Plasma Processing and Diagnostics for Life Sciences
Symposium H—Multifunctionality in Polymer—Based Materials, Gel and Interfaces
Symposium I—Nanocellulose Materials and Beyond—Nanoscience, Structures, Nanomanufacturing and Devices
Symposium J—Wetting and Soft Electrokinetics
Symposium K—Materials Science, Technology and Devices for Cancer Modeling, Diagnosis and Treatment
Symposium L—Nanofunctional Materials, Nanostructures and Nanodevices for Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials and Synthesis
Symposium M—Micro- and Nanoscale Processing of Materials for Biomedical Devices
Symposium N—Magnetic Nanomaterials for Biomedical and Energy Applications
Symposium O—Plasmonic Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion
Symposium P—Synthesis and Applications of Nanowires and Hybrid 1D-0D/2D/3D Semiconductor Nanostructures
Symposium Q—Nano Carbon Materials—1D to 3D
Symposium R—Harsh Environment Sensing—Functional Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites, Materials for Associated Packaging and Electrical Components and Sensing
Mechanical Behavior and Failure of Materials
Symposium S—Mechanical Behavior at the Nanoscale
Symposium T—Strength and Failure at the Micro- and Nanoscale—From Fundamentals to Applications
Symposium U—Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties in Interface-Dominated Metallic Materials
Symposium V—Gradient and Laminate Materials
Symposium W—Materials under Extreme Environments (MuEE)
Symposium Y—Shape Programmable Materials
Electronics and Photonics
Symposium Z—Molecularly Ordered Organic and Polymer Semiconductors—Fundamentals and Devices
Symposium AA—Organic Semiconductors—Surface, Interface and Bulk Doping
Symposium BB—Innovative Fabrication and Processing Methods for Organic and Hybrid Electronics
Symposium CC—Organic Bioelectronics—From Biosensing Platforms to Implantable Nanodevices
Symposium DD—Diamond Electronics, Sensors and Biotechnology—Fundamentals to Applications
Symposium EE—Beyond Graphene—2D Materials and Their Applications
Symposium FF—Integration of Functional Oxides with Semiconductors
Symposium GG—Emerging Materials and Platforms for Optoelectronics
Symposium HH—Optical Metamaterials—From New Plasmonic Materials to Metasurface Devices
Symposium II—Phonon Transport, Interactions and Manipulations in Nanoscale Materials and Devices—Fundamentals and Applications
Symposium JJ—Multiferroics and Magnetoelectrics
Symposium KK—Materials and Technology for Non-Volatile Memories
Energy and Sustainability (MRS/E-MRS Bilateral Energy Conference)*
Symposium LL—Materials and Architectures for Safe and Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage Technologies
Symposium MM—Advances in Flexible Devices for Energy Conversion and Storage
Symposium NN—Thin-Film and Nanostructure Solar Cell Materials and Devices for Next-Generation Photovoltaics
Symposium OO—Nanomaterials-based Solar Energy Conversion
Symposium PP—Materials, Interfaces and Solid Electrolytes for High Energy Density Rechargeable Batteries
Symposium QQ—Catalytic Materials for Energy
Symposium RR—Wide-Bandgap Materials for Energy Efficiency—Power Electronics and Solid-State Lighting
Symposium SS—Progress in Thermal Energy Conversion—Thermoelectric and Thermal Energy Storage Materials and Devices
Theory, Characterization and Modeling
Symposium TT—Topology in Materials Science—Biological and Functional Nanomaterials, Metrology and Modeling
Symposium UU—Frontiers in Scanning Probe Microscopy
Symposium VV—In Situ Study of Synthesis and Transformation of Materials
Symposium WW—Modeling and Theory-Driven Design of Soft Materials
Symposium XX—Architected Materials—Synthesis, Characterization, Modeling and Optimal Design
Symposium YY—Advanced Atomistic Algorithms in Materials Science
Symposium ZZ—Material Design and Discovery via Multiscale Computational Materials Science
Symposium AAA—Big Data and Data Analytics for Materials Characterization
Symposium BBB—Liquids and Glassy Soft Matter—Theoretical Studies and Neutron Scattering
Symposium CCC—Integrating Experiments, Simulations and Machine Learning to Accelerate Materials Innovation
Symposium DDD—Lighting the Path towards Non-Equilibrium Structure-Property Relationships in Complex Materials
Symposium X—Frontiers of Materials Research
November 2, 2015 to November 4, 2015
Location : CECAM-HQ-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
The goal of the present workshop is to bring together the different communities working in computational plasmonics, to address open questions such as:
• How to identify a plasmon excitation in electronic structure method results? How do excitations transform from molecular-like to plasmon-like with increasing size?
• What are the bottlenecks to be overcome to get a first principle description of plasmonics? Are plasmonic systems posing conceptual or technical issues different from large molecules, or is it just a matter of size?
• Are the present multiscale approaches to molecular plasmonics complete? If not, what is missing? How can the chemical interaction be included in this framework?
• What are the computational predictions accessible to experimental verifications? What are the burning questions by experiments to theory in this field?
• Are non conventional plasmonics materials such as graphene or metal oxides posing new or different challenges with respect to metal nanostructures? Is the classical Elettrodynamics treatment as good for these materials as for metals, or an atomistic modeling is mandatory? How does nanostructuring modify the plasmonic properties of non conventional plasmonic materials?
- Stefano Corni (CNR-NANO, Institute of nanoscience, Modena, Italy)
- Arrigo Calzolari (CNR-NANO, Institute of nanoscience, Modena, Italy)
The Ninth International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics – Metamaterials 2015, will comprise a 4-day Conference (7–10 September), and a 2-day Doctoral School(11–12 September). Co-organized by the Metamorphose Virtual Institute and the University of Oxford and hosted by the University of Oxford, this Congress follows the success of Metamaterials 2007-2014 and continues the traditions of the highly successful series of International Conferences on Complex Media and Metamaterials (Bianisotropics) and Rome International Workshops on Metamaterials and Special Materials for Electromagnetic Applications and TLC. The Congress will provide a unique topical forum to share the latest results of the metamaterials research in Europe and worldwide and bring together the engineering, physics, and material science communities working on artificial materials and their applications from microwaves to optical frequencies, as well as in acoustics, mechanics, and thermodynamics.
The Doctoral School collocated with the Conference will represent an excellent opportunity for students and young researchers to get exposure to the latest advancements in the field of metamaterials and to meet the leading experts in this rapidly developing field. For more information, visit the website of the European Doctoral Programs on Metamaterials – EUPROMETA.
27 MAY 2015
The bizarre nature of reality as laid out by quantum theory has survived another test, with scientists performing a famous experiment and proving that reality does not exist until it is measured.
Physicists at The Australian National University (ANU) have conducted John Wheeler’s delayed-choice thought experiment, which involves a moving object that is given the choice to act like a particle or a wave. Wheeler’s experiment then asks – at which point does the object decide?
Common sense says the object is either wave-like or particle-like, independent of how we measure it. But quantum physics predicts that whether you observe wave like behavior (interference) or particle behavior (no interference) depends only on how it is actually measured at the end of its journey. This is exactly what the ANU team found.
“It proves that measurement is everything. At the quantum level, reality does not exist if you are not looking at it,” said Associate Professor Andrew Truscott from the ANU Research School of Physics and Engineering.
Despite the apparent weirdness, the results confirm the validity of quantum theory, which governs the world of the very small, and has enabled the development of many technologies such as LEDs, lasers and computer chips.
The ANU team not only succeeded in building the experiment, which seemed nearly impossible when it was proposed in 1978, but reversed Wheeler’s original concept of light beams being bounced by mirrors, and instead used atoms scattered by laser light.
“Quantum physics’ predictions about interference seem odd enough when applied to light, which seems more like a wave, but to have done the experiment with atoms, which are complicated things that have mass and interact with electric fields and so on, adds to the weirdness,” said Roman Khakimov, PhD student at the Research School of Physics and Engineering.
Professor Truscott’s team first trapped a collection of helium atoms in a suspended state known as a Bose-Einstein condensate, and then ejected them until there was only a single atom left.
The single atom was then dropped through a pair of counter-propagating laser beams, which formed a grating pattern that acted as crossroads in the same way a solid grating would scatter light.
A second light grating to recombine the paths was randomly added, which led to constructive or destructive interference as if the atom had travelled both paths. When the second light grating was not added, no interference was observed as if the atom chose only one path.
However, the random number determining whether the grating was added was only generated after the atom had passed through the crossroads.
If one chooses to believe that the atom really did take a particular path or paths then one has to accept that a future measurement is affecting the atom’s past, said Truscott.
“The atoms did not travel from A to B. It was only when they were measured at the end of the journey that their wave-like or particle-like behavior was brought into existence,” he said.
The research is published in Nature Physics.
Valerie C. CoffeyA white-light laser has the potential to replace white LEDs in lighting, displays, sensing and telecom, with higher energy conversion efficiencies and higher output powers. But multicolor lasing from a small, monolithic semiconductor-based laser has remained elusive due to fundamental challenges in materials and structures.
Researchers at the Arizona State University (ASU; Tempe, Arizona, USA) have reportedly overcome these challenges for the first time, to create a multi-segment monolithic white laser that emits at one or all of the visible colors of the spectrum at once (Nat. Nanotech., doi:10.1038/nnano.2015.149). ASU professor Zheng Ning and colleagues worked with various nanomaterials in multiple configurations for more than ten years before successfully finding the solution. Lasing in green and red from a monolithic semiconductor sheet came first; but growing blue-emitting materials on the same sheet took two years to perfect.
The winning technique involved dynamically manipulating a ZnCdSSe alloy nanosheet along an axial temperature gradient during chemical vapor deposition growth. The team achieved the desired segmented nanosheet morphology separately from the desired material composition, a novel approach requiring multiple steps and simultaneous cation-anion exchange in a careful sequence. The resulting structures measure 60 by 45 µm and range in thickness from 60 to 350 nm.
The multi-segment monolithic nanosheets lase at red, green and blue wavelengths, and every color in between, when excited by a 355-nm pulsed laser at room temperature. The emission reaches across 190 nm of the visible wavelength range, the largest ever reported for such a structure.
The team’s experimental proof of concept will require further efforts to operate via battery instead of optical pumping. Still, the researchers believe that demonstration of the required growth process marks a significant step toward the goal of electrically operated white lasers.[Correction, 2015/08/07: We have changed the title of this story; the previous title incorrectly suggested that this development represented the first white laser rather than the first monolithic white laser.]