Role of Plasmonics in Detection of Deadliest Viruses: a Review
Foozieh Sohrabi, Sajede Saeidifard, Masih Ghasemi, Tannaz Asadishad, Seyedeh Mehri Hamidi*, Seyed Masoud Hosseini
Viruses have threatened animal and human lives since a long time ago all over the world. Some of these tiny particles have caused disastrous pandemics that killed a large number of people with subsequent economic downturns. In addition, the quarantine situation itself encounters the challenges like the deficiency in the online educational system, psychiatric problems and poor international relations. Although viruses have a rather simple protein structure, they have structural heterogeneity with a high tendency to mutation that impedes their study. On top of the breadth of such worldwide worrying issues, there are profound scientific gaps, and several unanswered questions, like lack of vaccines or antivirals to combat these pathogens. Various detection techniques like the nucleic acid test, immunoassay, and microscopy have been developed; however, there is a tradeoff between their advantages and disadvantages like safety in sample collecting, invasiveness, sensitivity, response time, etc. One of the highly-resolved techniques that can provide early-stage detection with fast experiment duration is plasmonics. This optical technique has the capability to detect viral proteins and genomes at the early-stage via highly-sensitive interaction between the biological target and the plasmonic chip. The efficiency of this technique could be proved using commercialized techniques like reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. In this study, we aim to review the role of plasmonic technique in the detection of 11 deadliest viruses besides 2 common genital viruses for the human being. This is a rapidly moving topic of research, and a review article that encompasses the current findings may be useful for guiding strategies to deal with the pandemics. By investigating the potential aspects of this technique, we hope that this study could open new avenues toward the application of point-of-care techniques for virus detection at early-stage that may inhibit the progressively hygienic threats.