Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems published a paper entitled as “Multidirectional UV Lithography for Complex 3-D MEMS Structures”.
Abstract—Various three-dimensionally (3-D) complex MEMS structures are fabricated using multidirectional ultraviolet (UV) lithography, which includes reverse-side exposure through a UV-transparent substrate, inclined exposure with or without simultaneous substrate rotation, and the combination of these processes. A reverse-side exposure scheme through UV-transparent substrates (e.g., glass, sapphire, or quartz) has been exploited for implementing high-aspect-ratio structures (greater than 20:1), repeatable self-alignment photoresist patterning with subsequent metallization on a BST/sapphire substrate, and unconventional patterning using substrate optics such as proximity patterning or integrated lens techniques. Inclined exposure has been applied to a SU-8 substrate with differing inclination angles and incidence directions. The refractive index of SU-8 is experimentally determined to be 1.68 by means of test structures fabricated using this approach. Implemented structures using the inclined exposure include vertical screen structures, inclined tubes, and conical shape structures. Dynamic mode operation, in which the substrate is continuously rotated and tilted during exposure is also discussed. Examples of achievable 3-D structures using dynamic mode operation are presented.